University Psychology Student Class – Hybrid Meeting Etiquette Adventure

On September 25th, 2023, we visited a classroom of university psychology students at the University of Oulu to see their interesting activity named “Hybrid Meeting Etiquette Adventure”. The learning and education technology teacher, Iiris Kivioja, designed this hands-on activity with the aim of providing the students with real-life experience and familiarising themselves with practical issues in the working environment. In this activity, the students discussed their future workplace and work-related issues, such as a supportive work community, well-being of the therapists, the diversity and cultural sensitivity of the patients etc. Before the activity, students studied together the advantages and challenges of working remotely. In addition, they studied issues related to work ergonomics and online safety.

At the beginning of the mock-up hybrid session, the teacher explained the task with a digital/printed document. The instruction defines what they should do to start a hybrid meeting and participation etiquette. The teacher also specified the discussion topics and roles in the meeting, but students were allowed to decide them within a small group.

Picture 1. The teacher explaining the task before the mock-up hybrid session

Common tasks before starting the mock-up hybrid meeting were as follows:

1. Assigning Roles: The first step involved assigning roles, ensuring that at least one participant joined from a different location. This helped simulate a real-world scenario where hybrid meetings are common.

2. Choosing a Meeting Topic: The students were required to brainstorm and select a meeting topic that would serve as the focal point of their discussion. Creativity and collaboration were key in this stage.

3. Scheduling and Invitations: The chairperson took on the responsibility of scheduling the meeting and sending out invitations to all participants. This was crucial for ensuring everyone was aware of the meeting’s date and time.

4. Setting up the Meeting Equipment: A meeting speaker and camera were introduced into the scenario. The class had to connect the speaker to someone present, become familiar with its operation, and troubleshoot any potential issues. In light of this, microphones and video for others were muted to avoid unnecessary disruptions.

5. Teams Presence: Even though there was a meeting speaker in use, it was essential for all participants to be present on the Teams platform, ensuring seamless communication.

Students assigned themselves with the following roles and responsibilities:


Before the meeting:

  • Prepare a document outlining the meeting’s agenda and share it on your screen.
  • Familiarize yourself with how to record the meeting and share recording rights with the secretary.

During the meeting:

  • Act as the meeting leader and ensure a smooth flow.
  • Start by welcoming everyone and presenting the meeting’s objectives by sharing the agenda on screen.
  • Invite participants to comment on matters one by one, ensuring everyone’s voice is heard.
  • Ensure remote participants can be heard and participate in the discussion.


Before the meeting:

  • Create a template for meeting notes.
  • Make sure you have the recording rights shared by the chairperson.

During the meeting:

  • Act as the secretary, documenting the meeting and sharing the document on screen.
  • Assist the chairperson with technical issues.
  • Keep records of decisions and action items.
  • Actively participate in the discussion and request the floor when necessary.


Before the meeting:

  • Review the meeting agenda.
  • Prepare a document, PowerPoint, or tab to share on your screen during the meeting.

During the meeting:

  • Act as an on-site participant and ensure remote participants can see and hear you clearly.
  • Actively engage in the discussion while following etiquette.

Everyone in the meeting practices how to deal with disruptive behaviour in a hybrid meeting


Before the meeting:

  • Prepare a document, PowerPoint, or tab to share on your screen during the meeting.

During the meeting:

  • Avoid violating the meeting etiquette
    For example, these kinds of actions are not welcomed:
    • Not opening the camera when necessary
    • Not muting the microphone
    • Giving too long monologues
    • Disturbing by e.g. eating, making a noise, and interrupting other’s speech

The group members were divided into onsite and remote roles to participate in the meeting. Groups of students decided which video conferencing tool to use (Zoom or MS Teams), and the leader set a meeting and sent a calendar invitation to the members. Everyone in the group learned together how to send the calendar invitation. The teacher also set an example. Remote students eventually moved to a small room and connected to the onsite students via a video conferencing tool. Onsite students connected a 360-degree camera and speaker (KanDao or Meeting Owl) to one member’s laptop to experience using the useful equipment for hybrid meetings.

Picture 2. The external meeting camera provided to each group.

Picture 3. Onsite students testing a Kandao

All the group had some audio issues such as howling and doubling a sound at the beginning. For example, onsite students were having issues when using an external speaker and microphone (e.g. Kandao). They tried out adjusting the settings, like turning off their own laptops’ speakers and muting themselves, with the help of a teacher, and eventually managed to stop howling. On the other hand, online students, who were a pair of students located in a small room together, were also struggling with audio issues caused by using the sound systems of two laptops next to each other. They managed to solve the issue by only using one laptop and turning off the audio of the other laptop.

Picture 4. Onsite students talking with other group members in a different room using a Kandao

Picture 5. A student’s laptop. They were talking to other group members in a different room using a Kandao.

The teacher said, the students went through the distance learning period during the pandemic in their upper secondary school (high school), but the lessons were mostly passive, not requiring any actions from the student end. By going through the real technical problems, the students eventually got to know how the sound and other functions worked and what are the best options for different situations.

After the lesson, we had a short interview with the teacher about the activity and her views on hybrid teaching:

How difficult was the task for students? Did they have enough digital competencies to solve the problem?

I would say, digital competencies vary among the students. Most of the students were somewhat familiar with the video conferencing tools and had experience of attending online classes during the pandemic, but didn’t know how to set up a meeting, invite people, and organize a meeting. Many of them also didn’t know how to share their screen and adjust the camera and audio settings. Although they had experience with the breakout room, they didn’t know how to make a group.

I asked the students how their distance learning experience in their upper secondary school (high school) was, and to my surprise, they did not have much opportunity to proactively use the functions of the video conference tool by themselves. Most of the time, the lectures were passive mode and students were just listening to the teacher.

How were students’ reactions? Did they like the mock-up hybrid activity?

I did a short survey about their feeling towards the activity and the experienced challenges in a hybrid meeting. They said the activity was very useful and fun. Some of them said they had never experienced this kind of practical stuff. They also mentioned that the clear structure and guidance, including group formation and role distribution, were good. They especially liked working in a group because they could help each other to solve technical problems together. I think designing a classroom activity in a way that it gives students an opportunity to experience technical issues and let them solve them together is important because that is a real learning experience.

When it comes to hybrid learning, what do you think is needed for teachers to arrange this mode of learning?

The teachers definitely need to get familiar with the environment, including the digital tools and the classroom they use, well in advance of the lecture. The audio is vital in hybrid sessions, so having a high-quality 360-degree meeting camera would be recommended. From a pedagogical point of view, skills to organize and facilitate an activity that engages students in peer interactions, such as discussion and group work is important, especially because a teacher can easily lose attention to the remote students. Also, I think setting clear rules is important when implementing hybrid teaching. For example, students should notify teachers of their remote attendance beforehand so that the teacher can plan the activity fitting their attendance mode.

What do you think is needed for students to effectively participate in this mode of learning?

I think the students need to show their ‘presence’ in the lecture, but of course, we cannot force remote students to open their cameras for privacy reasons. Perhaps we can set a rule like opening a camera when they are in a breakout room with peers. Students need to know the privacy and digital etiquette to work safely and smoothly. For example, although the strength of hybrid learning is flexibility, students shouldn’t join the session from anywhere, like in a car or noisy cafeteria, considering the influence on other students. Last but not least, they need basic digital skills to deal with the issues during the lecture on their end.

Thank you Iiris for inviting us to this interesting lecture and supporting us in writing this blog post! We also appreciate the warm welcome and cooperation of your students, allowing us to be present and capture images of them.

About the teacher:

Iiris Kivioja is a university teacher (Learning and Education Technology) at the University of Oulu, Faculty of Education and Psychology. She also conducts doctoral research and takes on project work. She teaches various digital tools and environments and STEAM pedagogy for her students. Before starting her current position, she worked in a local primary school for nine years as a classroom teacher being responsible for special education, craft and visual arts, ICT and STEAM pedagogy.

Writer of this blog: Azusa Nakata (Project manager and doctoral researcher at the LET Lab)